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What are stem cells? 

Stem cells are the body's raw materials — cells from which all other cells with specialized functions are generated. Under the right conditions in the body or a laboratory, stem cells divide to form more cells, called daughter cells. These daughter cells either become new stem cells (self-renewal) or become specialized cells (differentiation) with a more specific function, such as blood cells, brain cells, heart muscle or bone. Stem cells are unique — no other cell in the body has the natural ability to generate new cell types. 

What is stem cell therapy? 

Stem cell therapy, also known as regenerative medicine, is the replacement of diseased, dysfunctional or injured cells with stem cells or their derivatives. It's somewhat similar to the organ transplant process but uses cells instead of organs. 

Researchers grow stem cells in the lab. These stem cells are manipulated to make them specialize into specific types of cells, such as heart muscle cells, blood cells or nerve cells. This manipulation may involve changing the material in which the stem cells are grown or even injecting genes into the cells. The specialized cells could then be implanted into a person. For example, if the person had heart disease, the cells could be injected into the heart muscle. The healthy, transplanted heart cells could then contribute to repairing defective heart muscle. In fact, researchers have already shown that adult bone marrow cells guided to become heart-like cells can repair heart tissue in mice, and much more research is ongoing.

There are three types of cells 

  • Embroynic stem cells : Embryonic stem (ES) cells are formed as a normal part of embryonic development. They can be isolated from an early embryo and grown in a dish.

  • Adult stem cells : Somatic stem cells (also called adult stem cells) exist naturally in the body. They are important for growth, healing, and replacing cells that are lost through daily wear and tear.

  • Pluripotent stem cells : Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are created artificially in the lab by "reprogramming" a patient's own cells. iPS cells can be made from readily available cells including fat, skin, and fibroblasts (cells that produce connective tissue).

Sources of stem cells
The two broad types of stem cells found in people are adult stems cells and embryonic stem cells.

Adult stem cells

  • Cord blood, umbilical cord blood
  • Bone marrow
  • Blood, peripheral blood stem cells
  • Menstrual blood
  • Skin
  • Teeth
  • Placental tissue

Embryonic stem cells

  • Human embryos
  • Fetal tissue

Diseases that can be treated by stem cell therapy 
Cord blood has been successfully used in transplant medicine for more than 20 years to treat many serious diseases. Today stem cell therapies continue to evolve, bringing new hope to patients and their families

Vascular Disorders 
Chronic Heart Failure
Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Buerger's Disease 

Liver Disorders 
Liver Cirrhosis 

Bone and Cartilage Disorders 
Non-healing fractures 
Osteogenesis Imperfecta 

Neuro-Muscular Disorders
Cerebral Palsy
Multiple Sclerosis
Parkinson's Disease
Spinal Cord Injury
Alzheimer's disease
Muscular Dystrophy
Spinal Muscular Atrophy

Treatable Diseases of Haematological System 
Acute Leukemias
Chronic Leukemias
Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Marrow Failure
Myeloproliferative Disorders
Lymphoproliferative Disorders
Phagocyte Disorders
Inherited Platelet Abnormalities
Other Inherited Disorders
Inherited Disorders of Metabolism
Histiocytic Disorders
Inherited Erythrocyte Abnormalities
Inherited Disorders of Immune System
Plasma Cell Disorders
Other Malignancies

Brain Tumors
Ewing Sarcoma
Ovarian Cancer
Renal Cell Carcinoma
Small-Cell Lung Cancer
Testicular Cancer
Thymoma (Thymic Carcinoma)

Eye disorders
Anti aging 
Erectile dysfunction